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There are three ways to include sources into an essay or report: Paraphrasing, Summarizing or Quoting.




Quotations are:

  • Identical to the original, matching word for word
  • Placed in quotation marks (if longer than 4 lines of text, place in a block of text without quotes)
  • Includes a citation (the source)


Paraphrasing is:

  • Putting a passage in your own words
  • Is usually shorter than the original material
  • Does not need quotation marks
  • Includes a citation (source)


Summarizing is:

  • Putting the main idea(s) into your own words
  • Only includes main points
  • Is shorter than the original material
  • Includes a citation


You can include all three in an essay or report. 


How can you do this?

  1. Read an entire text, noting main ideas and key points.
  2. Put the main idea(s) of the text in your own words.
  3. Paraphrase points that support the main ideas.
  4. Include quotations, if desired. Quotes that are more than four lines can be placed in a free-standing block of text without quotes.
  5. Record all sources so that you can include them in your paper.


Compare Paraphrased Examples



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